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Rhiannon Clark and Emily Meyer
600-1500

Indeed the whole world is imagination. Only He [Allah] is the real in Reality. Whoever understands this knows the secrets of the spiritual path. –Ibn Arabi


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Mecca at night


The world of Islam dates from 600 AD to 1500AD. It is located on the Arabian Peninsula which is the largest peninsula in the world. The Arabian Peninsula is modern day Saudi Arabia. It has two regions; the southwestern area, which had well-watered valleys and the desert land which had oasis. An oasis is a fertile area near springs and water sources. The people in the world of Islam were Arabs, the sematic-speaking people of the Middle East, and the Bedouins who were Arab nomads that were animal herders.

The World of Islam’s culture was largely influenced by their religion. Their main religion is Islam, which was founded by Muhammad. The word Islam means “submission to the will of Allah”. Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, Allah being Arabic for God. Muhammad was born in Mecca and his wife Khadija was the first convert of Islam. The Islamic religion was started when Muhammad had a Revelation and it is said that the Angel Gabriel spoke to him in this vision and gave him The Night of Power. Muhammad was forced to leave Mecca in the Hegira or Great Flight. The city he fled to was called Medina, the city of the prophet, July 16, 622 AD became the first year of the Muslim Calendar. He returned to Mecca in 630 AD, and united the Arab tribes. When he died he is said to have ascended into Paradise from the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. There were five pillars of Islam. The first is that there is no god other than Allah and Muhammad is his prophet. The second is to pray 5 times a day “God is great!” you are supposed to face Mecca which is the holy city of Islam. Friday is the holy day of Islam. The third is you need to give alms to the needy, zakat. The fourth is you fast during Ramadan which is the holy month. The fifth is you make a Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca, once in your lifetime. Muslims are the followers of Islam; they read the Koran (Quran) which is the Holy Book of Islam. The Koran is the bases for Islamic Law, Government, and Religion. The Islamic people were unified by the Koran and the Arabic language. The shari’ah is the Muslim law code it forbids Muslims form gambling, eating pork, and drinking alcoholic beverages. The mosque is the Muslim temple of worship, a minaret has slender towers used to call people to prayer, and the Muezzin is the person who calls the people to prayer also known as a crier. The Imam leads the worshippers in prayer. The Great Mosque is located in Mecca it houses the Kaaba which is the holiest shrine of Islam. The Black Stone is a meteorite that was sent from heaven. The spread of Islam was important for these reasons the message was simple, there was and equality of all believers, no church was needed, it united the Arabs, and if you die fighting you would go to heaven.
The World of Islam was in many battles because of the idea of Jihads or holy wars. In a Jihad someone who died in battle, a martyr, was promised to go to paradise. The Muslim Army’s conquests included the Byzantine Empire in 640 AD, Syria, Palestine, the Persian Empire 650 AD, Egypt, and North Africa. When Mu’awiyah the Governor of Syria became Caliph, the new capital of the World of Islam became Damascus. Tariq lead and invasion of Spain in 711 AD and he conquered the Rock of Gibraltar also known as the Mountain of Tariq. Spanish Muslims became known as Moors, and Cordova became the capital of the Spanish Muslim state. At the battle of Tours in France, Charles Martel “The Hammer” stopped the spread of Islam into Western Europe. Also at the Battle of Constantinople the Byzantine Empire destroyed the Muslim invasion fleet. The Muslims wanted to be able to call the Mediterranean sea the “Muslim Lake”.
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Kaba at Mecca


5 Important People of Islam:
1) Muhammad- Muhammad was the founder of Islam. He was born in Mecca. He supposedly spoke to Gabriel who gave him message from Allah. He later became prophet from allah and fled from medina, also known as the city of the prophet in the Hegira or Great Flight. July 16 622 AD became the 1st year of Muslim calender. He returned to Mecca in 630 AD and united Arab tribes. At Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Muhammad ascended into Paradise according to the religion of Islam.
2) Abu Bakr- "The up right" Abu Bakr was Muhammad's father in law. In, 632 AD, he became the "Successor to the Prophet". Also know as the Caliph he was the religious and political leader of Islam. The Koran was his basis for ruling the empire.
3) Vlad the Impaler- Vlad the Impaler was Prince of Southern Transylvania (Romania). He was known as Dracula or "son of the devil". He was known for impaling people. He had 24000 Turkish Muslims killed, and stopped spread of Islam Eastern Europe.
4) Saladin- "The Magnificent" In 1187 AD, Saladin was a Muslim that destroyed Christian Forces, and captured Jerusalem.
5) Omar Khayyam- Omar Khayyam wrote The Arabian Nights. It contained stories of: Aladdin and His Lamp, Sinbad the Sailor, and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.

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Vlad the Impailer


5 Key Terms from Islam:
1) Astrolobe- An astrolobe is something Muslim sailors invented to use the stars to locate position when they were traveling.
2) Mamluks- Mamluks wereTurkish slave soldiers that stopped Mongol invasion of Egypt.
3) Berbers- The berbers were a North African tribe converted to Islam.
4) Black stone- The black stone is a black meteorite. Said to be sent from heaven, and blessed by Allah, kissing the stone is said to bless the pilgram.
5) Martyr- A martyr is a soldier that dies in battle and is promised they will go to paradise. This made muslims warriors fierce and fearless in battle.
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Man praying


*5 links*
The religionn of Islam--This website contains information about the religion of Islam including but not limited to their beliefs, stories, and the Quran. It would be helpful in gaining some insight in to the World of Islam.
Vlad the Impaler--This website contains facts about the myth of dracula and has references to back it up. If you are interested in why people think that staking kills a vampire this sight might be interesting to get some information from.
The Arabian Nights--This website explains the stories of Omar Khayyam, plus it has links so you can read many of them for yourself.
Berber--This website is part of Encyclopedia Britannica, it contains information about the berbers and what their life is like.
Muhammad--This website is an article about the life of Muhammad and what he accomplished, if you are curious it would be any easy read to help you understand his life a little bit better.
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The Bishop of Salisbury before Saladin

Timeline:
A.D. 622 - The first year of the Muslim calender
A.D. 630 - Muhammad returns to Makkah
A.D. 635 - The Quran is compiled
A.D. 661 - Umayyads establish Islamic Empire
A.D. 732 - Arab forces defeated at the Battle of Tours
A.D. 852 - Great Mosque of Samarra built
A.D. 900 - Arab scholars work at the House of Wisdom
A.D. 1187 - Saladin's army invades Jerusalem
A.D. 1258 - Mongols capture Baghdad
A.D. 1382 - Ibn-Khaldun teaches at university in Cairo