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Rhiannon Clark and Emily Meyer
600 B.C.-A.D. 500

"It is convenient that there be gods, and, as it is convenient, let us believe that there are."
-Ovid 43 BC - c.17 AD

map of Roman Empire

The Roman Empire started on the Italian Peninsula; the Apennine Mountains Separated the East from the West. The Tiber River played a large part in the beginning Civilizations of Rome. Rome was built on seven hills so it had a defensive advantage; it was also a center for trading. Ostia was a port city located by the mouth of the Tiber. During the Roman Empire there were latifudia or vast estates that grow grain and, Hadrian’s Wall was built to keep out the Scots. Towards the end when The Roman Empire was split into two parts Byzantium became the other capitol. The Romans had many great feats of architecture including the Colosseum where people could see gladiator fights, Circus Maximus where people could watch chariot races, and aqueducts, which were channels that carried water throughout the city.

Rome started with twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, who built Rome, but Romulus killed Remus. The Etruscans found Rome and made it into a city, the Roman people ended up being a mixture of Latins and Etruscans. During the Roman Republic citizens had the right to vote and elect leaders; there was a senate of 300 patricians who were the legislative body, and two consuls who administered the laws of Rome. The Assembly of Centuries had the right to declare war, the Assembly of Tribes gave a semblance of control to the Plebians, and the Twelve Tables of Law was created as the first code of laws for Rome. They had an auxilia which were military units of non-citizens and they built the Appian Way which was military roads. There were three Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage over trade. The first was over control of Sicily and the winner got an indemnity which is money towards the victors in war. In the second Hannibal crossed the Alps, and ate the Battle of Cannae were 45,000 Romans were killed. To counter the Romans went to North Africa and defeated Hannibal in the Battle in Zama. After the Punic Wars, two champions of the poor Tiberius Gracchus gave land to the poor and Gaius Gracchus sold grain to the poor, both were killed by the Senate. Spartacus a gladiator won his freedom and lead a slave revolt, 6000 slaves were crucified. The first triumvirate consisted of Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar. Julius defeated the other two and was appointed dictator for life by the senate. Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus stabbed Caesar to death to end his rule. The second triumvirate consisted of Octavian, Marc Anthony and Lepidus. Octavian soon started ruling in the west, Marc Anthony started in the east, and Lepidus was forced out. Marc Anthony married Cleopatra and the committed suicide together Marc Anthony by a sword and Cleopatra by an Asp’s bite. Octavian was given the title Augustus by the Senate meaning “Exalted One”, he became the first Roman emperor. After he died the Julian Emperors ruled Rome they were Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. After them came the Age of Good Emperors also known as the Golden Age of Rome when the Roman Empire reached its largest size. Marcus Aurelius was the “Last of the Good Emperors”, and then Came Commodus the “Mad Emperor” and the decline of Rome. Then co-emperors Dicletian who ruled the east and Maximian ruled the west. Then there was the last emperor Romulus Augustuslus before Odoacer a barbarian leader takes Rome.

The Romans started as a polytheistic empire with man Gods. Their main Gods were Janus the God of beginnings, Vesta the Goddess of heaven, Jupiter the number one God, Juno queen of the Gods, Venus the Goddess of Love, Cupid the God of Love, Mars the God of war, Mercury the Messenger of the Gods, Minerva the Goddess of Wisdom, Neptune the God of the sea, Pluto the God of the underworld, Saturn the God of agriculture, and Victoria was the Goddess of Victory. The Hebrews resented Roman Rule, and they were waiting for the messiah. Jesus came and claimed he was the messiah, but the Hebrews rejected him and he became the founder of Christianity. Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion and he died in 33 AD. Apostles tried to convert Romans to Christianity and the Gospel was their book of Good News. Emperor Constantine was the “Protector of Christianity”

Bust of Alexander the Great

Five Important People from the Roman Empire:
1) Julius Caesar- Julius Caesar was part of the first triumvirate, after he defeated the other Pompey and Crassus; he had the senate appoint him dictator.
2) Romulus- Romulus and his brother, Remus, built Rome. Romulus killed his brother, and Rome was named after him.
3) Spartacus- Spartacus was a Gladiator, who won his freedom and then started a slave revolt because of the revolt 6000 slaves were crucified.
4) Octavian/Augustus- Octavian was part of the second triumvirate, he came into power and became Rome’s first emperor. After he became emperor the Senate gave him the title of Augustus.
5) Romulus Augustulus- Romulus Augustulus was the last emperor of the Roman Empire before Odoacer took Rome.

Inside colosseum

5 Key Terms from the Roman Empire:
1) Crossing the Rubicon”- A phrase that is used today to mean being unable to turn back, reference to Caesar illegally crossing the Rubicon
2) Pax Romana- During the second century, five emporers, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and Antonius Pius created a period of peace and prosperity, “Roman Peace”
3) Insulate- Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete
4) Vandal- modern word taken from a ruthless tribe that invaded southern Spain and Africa
5) Praetorian Guard- nine thousand men who had the important task of guarding the emperor
christian martyrs colosseum

The Roman Empire-This website has different links on it that lead to different parts of the Roman Empire such as the decline, religion, and society.
Roman Religion-This website has paragraphs about different parts of roman Religion.
Roman Empire Maps-This website has maps of defferent parts of the Roman Empire at certain times in its history.
Roman Politics-This website has extra information about the Roman Senate.
Roman People-This website is about famous Roman people such as Caesar and Antony.

Painting on wall

650 B.C. - Etruscans rule Rome
509 B.C. - Rome becomes a republic
450 B.C. - The Twelve Tables is Rome's first code of laws
312 B.C. - Appian Way built
264 B.C. - Punic Wars begin
44 B.C. - Julius Caesar assassinated
A.D. 33 - Jesus dies in Jerusalem
A.D. 79 - Pompeii destroyed in eruption of Mount Vesuvius
A.D. 180 - Pax Romana ends
A.D. 476 - Fall of the Roman Empire