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3500-500 B.C.

Emily Meyer and Rhiannon Clark
Citizens, the priority now is to recover trust between the Egyptian - amongst the Egyptians and to have trust and confidence in our economy and international reputation and the fact that the change that we have embarked on will carry on and there's no going back to the old days.
Hosni Mubarak

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Sphinx


Egypt is located by the Nile. The Egyptians called it the "Giver of Life". The Nile River is 4,160 miles long and it's the longest river in the world. They had many different natural barriers that protected them from invasion, examples are the Libyan Desert, Nubian Desert, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, also rapids in the river called cataracts. The Sinai Peninsula is a triangle shaped piece of land, which connects Egypt and Western Asia. They called black soil, Kemet, meaning Black Land.

There were many important events that took place from 3500 BC- 500 BC in Ancient Egypt. Menes, the first Pharaoh of Egypt, united upper and lower Egypt in 3100 BC. The Old Kingdom also known as the Pyramid Age took place form 2700 BC- 2200 BC is said to be the greatest period of Egyptian History. The Middle Kingdom also known as the Golden Age took place from 2050 BC- 1800 BC. During this time period there was mummification for lower classes, a canal linked the Nile and the Red Sea, Thebes became the new capital city, Hyksos, Princes of the Desert, were the first group of people to invade Egypt, and the Tale of Sinhue was told. The New Kingdom also known as the Empire Age took place from 1570 BC- 1090 BC. Queen Hatshepsut became the first female ruler in history during the Empire Age. Thutmose III helped the empire reach its greatest size by conquering Syria and Persia. Amenhotep IV, "The Heretic", started a religious revolution that switched the empires religion from polytheism to monotheism. The new god was Aton and Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton, translated to It goes well with Aton. Queen Nefertiti wife of Amenhotep IV restored polytheism after he died, possibly. King Tutankhaman or the boy king died at age 18. Howard Carter later found his Tomb in 1922 AD and found many undiscovered riches in there. Ramses II, "Ramses the Great", was the strongest of the Pharaohs, he lived from 1304 BC to 1237 BC. He was ruler during the time of a war against the Hittites, and helped negotiate the first written treaty in history in 1280 BC. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, she ruled in Alexandria the third and last capital city in Ancient Egypt, in 31 BC. Augustus Caesar was the one who defeated Cleopatra and Egypt became a province of Rome.


Egypt had a polytheistic society meaning it had more than one god. The gods were very important to there way of life, and were involved in almost every aspect. the pharoah was considered to be the son of Amon Re, the sun god. The built obelisks and sphinxes as part of their belief system. Some other gods of their's were Osiris, the god of the Nile and the Underworld, he was also the judge of the dead. His wife was Isis who supposedly brought him back to life. Hourus was the falcon god and the god of heaven. Anubus was the good of embalming. Hapin was the god of the Nile flooding. Maat was the divine cosmic principle of the universe in Egyptian society and it kept truth and justic in the world. At one point Egypt was a monotheistic society. During that time there God was Aton who was the provider of the entire world and the sun disk was his symbol.

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egypt map


Five Most Important People from Ancient Egypt=1) Menes- Menes was the first known Pharoah of Egypt. He united the Upper and Lower Kingdoms in 3100 BC. The crown he wore was a combination of red and white symbolizing the unification of two kingdoms.2) Thutmose II- Also known as, "Napoleon of Egypt" Thutmose II conquered Syria and Persia. During his reign the empire reached its greatest size in 1493 BC.3) Ramses II- Also known as, "Ramses the Great" he was strongest of the Pharoahs from 1304 BC to 1237 BC. After the war versus the Hittites, he helped write the first written treaty in history in 1280 BC.4) Queen Hatshepsut- Also known as, "Queen Pharoah" she was the first female ruler in history, and she wore the ceremonial beard. She ruled form 1473 BC to 1458 BC.5) Amenhotep IV- Also know as, "The Heretic", he started a religious revolution, and tried to get his people to convert to monotheism. He ruled from 1353 BC to 1336 BC.
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mummy


Five Key Terms from Ancient Egypt=1) dynasty- A dynasty is a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family, these include the pharoahs of Ancient Egypt.2) bureacracy- A bureacracy is an administrative organization that relies on non elective officials and regular procedures. Which is unlike the United States where we vote for our leaders.3) vizier- A vizier is a high government official in ancient egyptian muslim countries. They were the behind the scenes managers of the country who many pharoahs went to for advice.4) mummification- Mummification is a proccess of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decaying. Many mummies that were preserved hundreds of years ago are still intact today.5) heiroglyphics- Heiroglyphics are abstract forms of writing used by ancient egyptians. You see them in the pyramids of Pharoahs depicting stories on the walls.
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King Tut's gold casket

The British Museum--This website has many different links that lead to different aspects of Ancient Chinese life.Ancient Egypt History-- This website has different links to parts of ancient chinese life.Ancient Egypt Geography--This website describes how the Nile was and important part of Ancient Egyptian life, and the idea of upper and lower egypt.Ancient Egyptian Religion--This website explains the ideas of polytheism and monotheism in the Ancient Egyptian faith system. AncientEgyptian Writing--This website has different hyroglyphics and is a really fun way to learn more about hieroglyphics.
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Egyptian wall art
Timeline:3100 B.C. - Menes united upper and lower Egypt2700 B.C. - Old Kingdom or Pyramid Age began2200 B.C. - Old Kingdom ended2050 B.C. - Middle Kingdom or Golden Age began1800 B.C. - Middle Kingdom ended1570 B.C. - New Kingdom or Empire Age began1090 B.C. - New Kingdom ended1304 B.C. - Ramses II or "Ramses the Great" was born1280 B.C. - Ramses II negotiated the firest written treaty in history1237 B.C. - Ramses II died31 B.C. - Alexandria was the last capital city in Ancient Egypt